Research Articles: All posts by Bryant G. Wood PhD

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Khirbet el-Maqatir: A Fortress in the Highlands of Canaan and Proposed New Site for Joshua's Ai 3/3/2014 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

On February 8, 2014, a symposium was held at Houston Baptist University in conjunction with the new archaeological exhibit, " Khirbet el-Maqatir: History of a Biblical Site." Dr. Bryant Wood presented the evidence from eleven seasons of excavations at Khirbet el-Maqatir. No other site meets all the criteria necessary to be the Ai of Joshua 7-8.

2013 Roundup of Significant New Discoveries 9/12/2013 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Announcements of archaeological discoveries and research of Biblical significance, mainly from Israel, have been made throughout 2013. In this article I would like to update readers on six of these recent findings.

Follow up Report on the 2013 Season at Khirbet el-Maqatir 7/1/2013 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Thank you for praying for our 11th season of excavations at Khirbet el-Maqatir May 20–31. God gave us safety, with only one noteworthy accident (a broken rib), wonderful volunteers and many significant discoveries. I reported a year ago that our 2012 season was the best yet, apart from the finding of the gate in our first season. But the 2013 season eclipsed the 2012 season in terms of the importance of the finds.

John the Baptist: the First Believer in Christ to be Martyred 2/20/2013 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Three early martyrdoms are recorded in the New Testament: John the Baptist in ca. AD 31, Stephen in ca. AD 35 and James the apostle in ca. AD 44. There would be countless others that would follow in their train. In this article I would like to briefly consider the history and archaeology associated with the first Christian martyr, John the Baptist.

Conquest Confusion at Yale 11/20/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

We recently received an email from a visitor concerning the Conquest of Canaan. He sent us an excerpt from an undergraduate course at Yale, outlining the standard liberal view on the chronology and historicity of the book of Joshua. Dr. Bryant Wood responds.

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Seven With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/23/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood in a Question and Answer session on the history, chronology and archaeology from the period of the Book of Judges.

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Six With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/21/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood discusses the history, chronology and archaeology from the period of the Book of Judges. In Part 6, further evidences from the Judges period are surveyed, including the Danite Migration, Shechem, Laish and the Merneptah Stela.

The Search for Ai: Audio Presentation 8/17/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In March of 2012, Dr. Bryant Wood visited the campus of Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary. During that time, he presented ABR's research to the DBTS faculty. This audio presentation concerns ABR's work at Khirbet el-Maqatir and the City of Ai from Joshua 7 and 8.

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Five With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/16/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood discusses the history, chronology and archaeology from the period of the Book of Judges. In part 5, the connection between Pharaoh Akhenaten and Canaan is made, particularly through the Amarna letters, which speak of a group of people in the land of Canaan called the "Apiru".

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Four With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/13/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood discusses the history, chronology and archaeology from the period of the Book of Judges. In part 4, the connection between Pharaoh Akhenaten and Canaan is made, particularly through the Amarna letters, which speak of a group of people in the land of Canaan called the "Apiru"

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Three With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/6/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood of the Associates for Biblical Research discusses the history, chronology and archaeology from the period of the Book of Judges. Part 3 continues to focus on a structure found at Jericho that could be the palace of Eglon, King of Moab.

Judges: Forgotten History: Part Two With Dr. Bryant Wood 8/1/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the book of Judges, an oft forgotten book in the Old Testament. Part two focuses on a structure found at Jericho that could be the palace of Eglon, King of Moab.

Judges: Forgotten History: Part One With Dr. Bryant Wood 7/27/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the book of Judges, an oft-forgotten book in the Old Testament.

Outstanding Finds Made at Khirbet el-Maqatir: May 28–June 8, 2012 7/17/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The tenth excavation season of the ABR-sponsored dig at Khirbet el-Maqatir was conducted from May 28 to June 8, 2012, under the direction of the author.[1] The following report provides readers with the most up to date information from our excavations in Israel as we continue to uncover evidence related to the events of Joshua chapters 7-8.

Israelite Kings in Assyrian Inscriptions 5/22/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In previous issues of Bible and Spade, we had discussed five Assyrian kings named in the Bible. Now we wish to examine the other side of that coin—the kings of Israel named in the Assyrian records. All told, there are nine kings of Israel and Judah mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions. References to five of these kings (Menaham, Pekah, Hosea, Ahaz and Hezekiah) are paralleled by biblical passages. The remaining four have to do with events not mentioned in the Bible, and thereby add to our knowledge of these particular Israelite kings...

Remembering Clifford A. (“Cliff”) Wilson, May 10, 1923–April 4, 2012 5/3/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

On April 4, 2012, long time ABR Associate and friend, Dr. Clifford Wilson, went home into glory with our Lord. Dr. Bryant Wood shares his thoughts about Dr. Wilson's life and ministry.

Excavations at Khirbet el-Maqatir: 1995 to 2000 and 2009 to 2011 4/4/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

"A Border Fortress in the Highlands of Canaan and a Proposed New Location for the Ai of Joshua 7–8."

Dating Jericho's Destruction: Bienkowski is Wrong on All Counts 3/28/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In 1990, Dr. Bryant Wood published his well known article in Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) on the destruction of Jericho and its correlation with the Biblical account. In the Sep./Oct. 1990 issue of BAR, Piotr Bienkowski wrote an article disputing Dr. Wood's conclusions. The following article engages with Bienkowski's criticisms, providing the reader with an in-depth analysis of some of the work done at Jericho, and demonstrating Dr. Wood's expertise and thorough familiarity with the evidence. This article provides some additional data not published in Dr. Wood's first BAR article, thus adding to the mountain of evidence demonstrating that Jericho was destroyed around 1400 B.C., the same time the Bible records that the events of Joshua 3-6 took place.

Digging Up Joshua's Ai: The 2009–2010 Seasons at Khirbet el-Maqatir 3/9/2012 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

After a hiatus of nine years due to political unrest in Israel, the Associates for Biblical Research resumed excavations at Kh. el-Maqatir for a seventh season May 22–June 5, 2009, and an eighth season May 24–June 4, 2010, under the direction of the author. In 2009, 23 volunteers from the US and Canada, plus a number of local residents participated. In 2010, 38 volunteers from the US, Australia and Israel made up the dig team. The site is located in the West Bank 9 mi (15 km) north of Jerusalem. Finds continue to support the identification of the site as the Ai of Joshua 7–8.

New Evidence Supporting the Early (Biblical) Date of the Exodus and Conquest 11/11/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Evangelical scholars are divided as to when the Exodus-Conquest events took place—some say the 15th century BC, while others hold to the 13th century BC.

Hittites and Hethites: A Proposed Solution to an Etymological Conundrum 11/8/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

"The presence of Hittites in the narratives of Israelite beginnings is thus rhetorical and ideological rather than historical.” -John Van Seters. The appearance of the term "Hittites" in English Bible translations has been an apologetic, archaeological and historical problem for quite some time. Many claim that references to the Hittites in the Old Testament are either errors or fictional anachronisms. In this important article, Dr. Bryant Wood proposes that the solution to this problem is a linguistic one. Based on a detailed assessment of the original Hebrew text, and an evaluation of the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Hittite and neo-Hittite kingdoms, Dr. Wood concludes our English translations require correction. Once this is accomplished, we once again find the Bible is accurate and trustworthy...

The Master Potter: Pottery Making in the Bible 7/5/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Pottery played a vital and important role in the everyday lives of the people of Bible times. It is not surprising therefore, that pottery and pottery making is often mentioned in the Bible. Many times prophets and preachers of the Bible used everyday experiences as object lessons to illustrate spiritual truths. The bowls, jars, and the manufacturing processes which produced them were familiar to everyone. The holy men of God used these to good advantage. This article will briefly consider how pottery was made during Bible times and explore a few of the references to pottery making in the Bible.

The Tel Dan Stela and the Kings of Aram and Israel 5/4/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

A people known as the Arameans lived in the regions of Syria and Mesopotamia in antiquity. They were a large group of linguistically related peoples who spoke dialects of a West Semitic language known as Aramaic. Although not politically unified, they developed powerful city-states that had a strong cultural influence in the Near East in the first millennium BC. The Aramaic language, very similar to Hebrew, became the official international language during the Persian Period, ca. 539–332 BC, and eventually replaced many of the local languages of the area, including Hebrew. As a result, in New Testament times the main local language was Aramaic rather than Hebrew.

New Light on the "Forgotten" Conquest 4/14/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

When one hears about the conquest, one automatically thinks about the conquest of the land west of the Jordan River described in the book of Joshua and Judges 1. The area is commonly referred to as Canaan, the Promised Land or Cisjordan. Prior to crossing the Jordan River and claiming this territory, however, Israel conquered lands east of the Jordan River in the area known as Transjordan. Although this “forgotten” conquest is described in only a few short verses in Numbers 21, with additional details given in several other passages, the territory captured was large, extending from the mid-point of the Dead Sea in the south to Mt. Hermon in the north, a straight-line distance of some 140 mi (225 km) (see map). By comparison, the distance from Dan to Beersheba in the Promised Land is about 145 mi (233 km).

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Eight) 2/22/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood answers questions after his presentation on Joshua's Ai and ABR's excavations at Khirbet el-Maqatir, Israel.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Seven) 2/13/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Six) 2/7/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Five) 2/1/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Four) 1/21/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Three) 12/8/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part Two) 11/29/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

Finding the Lost City of Ai: Joshua 7-8 with Dr. Bryant Wood (Part One) 11/1/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood walks the audience through the archaeological evidence pertaining to the Conquest of the Biblical city of Ai, discussing the scholarly debate, the evidence he has encovered, and the case for Khirbet el-Maqatir as the Ai of Joshua.

An Appraisal of the 2010 Drews and Han Wind Setdown Models of the Exodus 14 Sea Crossing 9/24/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Carl Drews and Weiqing Han of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, conducted 19 computer simulation tests of wind setdown at three suggested locations for the sea crossing described in Exodus 14 (2010). Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. The three test locations for the sea crossing were the north end of the Gulf of Suez, the mouth of a coastal lagoon in the eastern Nile delta at Tell Kedua and the north end of Ballah Lakes in the Isthmus of Suez at Tell Abu Sefeh...

The Ongoing Saga of the Cyrus Cylinder: The Internationally-Famous Grande Dame of Ancient Texts 8/18/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The Cyrus Cylinder is one of the most important discoveries in biblical archaeology. She was aroused from her 2,400-year sleep in the ruins of Babylon in 1879 by Hormuzd Rassam. Rassam, an evangelical Christian, was a native Iraqi born in 1826 in Mosul, across the Tigris River from the remains of ancient Nineveh. He met the famous British archaeologist Austen Henry Layard in 1841. Layard recognized Rassam’s potential and became his patron. Under Layard’s tutelage, Rassam developed into a competent archaeologist, becoming a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, the Society of Biblical Archaeology and the Victoria Institute. In 1876, with the help of Layard, who was now the British ambassador to Turkey, he obtained a permit from the Turkish government to conduct archaeological investigations in Assyria and Babylonia on behalf of the British Museum.

The Philistines Enter Canaan: Were They Egyptian Lackeys or Invading Conquerors? 7/12/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

At very beginning of the 12th century B.C. - the beginning of the period archaeologists call Iron Age I - the Sea Peoples swept out of the Aegean to make their appearance in the archeological record and in ancient literary references. The Philistines ultimately settled on and dominated some of the choicest land in Canaan - the agriculturally rich coastal strip from Gaza in the south to Tell Qasile, near modern Tel Aviv, in the north - through which passed one of the world's most important international trade routes. Soon the Philistines began exerting pressure on the Israelite tribes farther inland. This conflict prompted the Israelites to form a monarchy in the mid - 11th century in order to meet the Philistine threat more effectively. After about 150 years of dominance in the area, the Philistines faded from the scene - overpowered by the Israelites under King David - and thereafter played only a minor role in events until, in about 600 B.C., they disappeared altogether.

Researching Ai 5/14/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

After the Israelites defeated Jericho in the southern Jordan Valley, they then attacked the fortress of Ai in the highlands (Jos 7–8). Both of these sites have produced archaeological findings that have seemed to be in conflict with the Bible. Scholars have been quick to point out that these discrepancies lead to the conclusion that there was no Conquest as described in the book of Joshua. But is the problem with the Bible or with the interpretations of the archaeologists?

Researching Jericho 4/22/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

It was not until I was doing research for my Ph.D. thesis in the early 1980s that my attention was drawn to the findings at Jericho. In reviewing all of the published pottery from the Late Bronze Age in Palestine, I came across John Garstang’s pottery from the cemetery and destruction level at Jericho. Although earlier than the focus of my thesis, I was struck by the amount of pottery he had published that dated to the Late Bronze I period (ca. 1500–1400 BC), the time of the Conquest and the very time period Kathleen Kenyon said was missing from the tell...

ABR’s 2009 Excavation at Khirbet el-Maqatir: The Infant Jar Burial 2/9/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Infant jar burials beneath the floors of domestic houses are a relatively common find at archaeological sites in Israel. They are mostly from the Middle Bronze period, less common in Late Bronze I and unknown in Late Bronze II. The infant jar burial excavated by the ABR team during the 2009 season at Kh. el-Maqatir, although similar to other known examples, is unique in that Kh. el-Maqatir is a fortress and not an urban center...

Ancient Hebrew Inscription Dated to time of David 1/10/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The inscription, written in ink on clay, is the earliest yet found in Hebrew. It was discovered about 18 months ago in a dig at Khirbet Qeiyafa, near Emek Ha'ela. While it was quickly dated, its language remained uncertain until Prof. Gershon Galil was able to demonstrate that it was an early form of Hebrew - containing roots commonly found in Hebrew, but which are very rare in other Semitic languages.

Recent Research on the Date and Setting of the Exodus 10/19/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Sadly, most contemporary Biblical scholars deny the historicity of God’s miraculous deliverance of Israel from Egypt as documented in the Old Testament (Ex 2–12) and alluded to in the New Testament (Acts 7:36; Rom 9:17)...

The ABR Excavation at Khirbet el-Maqatir: Review of Past Work and Report on the 2009 Season 7/17/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

After a hiatus of nine years, ABR has resumed work at Kh. el-Maqatir, a promising candidate for Joshua’s Ai (Joshua 7–8). The site is located approximately 9 mi north of Jerusalem and 0.6 mi west of et-Tell, the site most scholars identify as Joshua’s Ai. There is a major problem identifying et-Tell as Joshua’s Ai, however, as the site was unoccupied at the time of the Israelite Conquest of Canaan...

Update from Khirbet el-Maqatir Week Two 6/7/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood describes some of the work from the second week of the 2009 season at Khirbet el-Maqatir...

Update from Khirbet el-Maqatir Week One 5/29/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Dr. Bryant Wood describes some of the work from the first week at Khirbet el-Maqatir...

The Search for Joshua's Ai 4/28/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The sites of Joshua’s Ai, Beth Aven and Bethel, are chronologically and geographically linked by Josh 7:2 and related passages. Joshua’s Ai is commonly thought to be located at et-Tell and Bethel at Beitin. Assuming these two identifications to be correct, no viable location for Beth Aven has been suggested. A detailed review of the geographical and archaeological data pertaining to et-Tell and Beitin reveals that et-Tell does not meet the biblical requirements for Joshua’s Ai, and Beitin does not meet the biblical and extrabiblical requirements for Bethel. Based on present evidence, the only combination that meets the complex matrix of biblical and extrabiblical requirements for the three sites is to locate Bethel at el-Bira, Beth Aven at Beitin, and Joshua’s Ai at the newly excavated site of Khirbet el-Maqatir...

The Number of Israelites in the Exodus 4/16/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Recently, ABR received the following question about the number of Israelites that left Egypt in the Exodus. Dr. Bryant Wood replies...

The Biblical Date for the Exodus is 1446 BC: A Response to James Hoffmeier 3/30/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The date of the Biblical Exodus-Conquest is clear. 1 Kgs 6:1 and 1 Chr 6:33–37 converge on a date of 1446 BC for the exodus and the Jubilees data and Judges 11:26 independently converge on a date of 1406 BC for the beginning of the conquest. The 1406 BC date is further confirmed by archaeological data from Jericho, Ai (Kh. el-Maqatir) and Hazor...

What Do Mt. Horeb, The Mountain of God, Mt. Paran and Mt. Seir Have to Do with Mt. Sinai? 11/17/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The short answer to our title question is that the Mountain of God, Mt. Horeb, Mt. Sinai and Mt. Paran are all names for Mt. Sinai, and Mt. Seir is important for determining the location of Mt. Sinai. The long answer...

New Discoveries at Rameses 10/26/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In the Spring 2004 issue of Bible and Spade, I reported on the important discovery of a royal precinct at Rameses, the setting of events recorded in the early chapters of Exodus. The article summarizes the results of excavations undertaken from 1993 to 2000. In the present article I would like to bring readers up to date with the results of further work at the site in the fall of 2004 and spring of 2005, based on a preliminary report published by the excavators...

Seal of Jezebel Identified 9/19/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Jezebel was zealous in her efforts to stamp out Yahwism and promote the worship of Baal. She mounted a campaign to kill the Lord’s prophets...

Carbon 14 Dating at Jericho 8/7/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

ABR has received multiple questions on this subject. Dr. Bryant Wood provides a brief response...

Egyptian Domination of Canaan during Joshua/Judges 7/8/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

ABR is always pleased to help sincere seekers get sound Biblical and archaeological answers to their questions. We hope our readers will clearly see that the Bible is trustworthy...

The Walls of Jericho 6/9/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Jericho was once thought to be a “Bible problem” because of the seeming disagreement between archaeology and the Bible. When the archaeology is correctly interpreted, however, the opposite is the case. The archaeological evidence supports the historical accuracy of the Biblical account in every detail. Every aspect of the story that could possibly be verified by the findings of archaeology is, in fact, verified...

Sodom and Gomorrah: Is There Evidence for Their Destruction? 5/6/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah have been discovered southeast of the Dead Sea. The modern names are Bab edh-Dhra, thought to be Sodom, and Numeira, thought to be Gomorrah. Both places were destroyed at the same time by an enormous conflagration...

Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho? A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence 5/1/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The story of the Israelite conquest of Jericho (Joshua 2-6) is one of the best known and best loved in the entire Bible. The vivid description of faith and victory has been a source of inspiration for countless generations of Bible readers. But did it really happen as the Bible describes it?

Nebo-Sarsekim Found in Babylonian Tablet 4/28/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Nebo who? You mean you don’t remember Nebo-Sarsekim? No wonder, because if you consult your concordance, you will find that he is referred to but once in the Old Testament...

From the Mailbag 4/20/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

How should Christians react to the "consensus of experts" that there was no Exodus or Conquest as recorded in the Old Testament?

The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory 4/17/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The 13th century exodus-conquest theory was formulated by William F. Albright in the 1930s, based largely on Palestinian archaeological evidence, and promoted by him throughout his career. In spite of the fact that the theory runs counter to Scripture, a number of evangelicals continue to hold to this view...

The Discovery of the Sin Cities of Sodom and Gomorrah 4/16/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

When the archaeological, geographical and epigraphic evidence is reviewed in detail, it is clear that the infamous cities of Sodom and Gomorrah have now been found. What is more, this evidence demonstrates that the Bible provides an accurate eyewitness account of events that occurred southeast of the Dead Sea over 4,000 years ago...

The Role of Shechem in the Conquest of Canaan 4/5/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Shechem is the natural capital of the hill country of central Canaan. It is protected by mountains, has an abundant water supply, and is blessed with wide, fertile fields to the east and west. Throughout much of the Middle and Late Bronze Ages and into the Iron I period, it was the most powerful city-state in the region...

In Search of Mt. Sinai 4/4/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Surprisingly, the location of Mt. Sinai, one of the most significant places in the Bible, is not known with any degree of certainty. Over the years some two dozen sites have been proposed, none of which meets the Biblical requirements.

The Royal Precinct at Rameses 4/3/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

When Jacob and his family migrated to Egypt, they were settled in “the land of Rameses.” Initially, they were property owners there. Soon, however, the Egyptians subjected the Israelites to bondage, using them as slave laborers to build the city of Rameses...

From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period 4/2/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Attempts to correlate the findings of archaeology with the biblical record for the period under review have seemingly met with insurmountable ob­stacles. Much of the scholarly community today has despaired of making any valid connections and has dismissed biblical history prior to the king­dom period as nothing more than myth and legend...

Beth Aven: A Scholarly Conundrum 4/1/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Scholars have been unable to come up with a viable site for Beth Aven. The reason is clear. Since the inception of historical-geographical research in Palestine, Bethel and Ai have been incorrectly located, thus obscuring the location of Beth Aven...

Prayer Letter from ABR Director of Research 10/15/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Seeds of doubt are planted by the media, museums and other institutions, and in our public schools. In addition, there is a growing promotion of anti-Christian belief systems such as atheism, cults, false religions and the occult...

Prayer Letter from ABR Director of Research 8/10/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In my last prayer letter I spoke about the decline of Biblical faith in America, particularly among our young people. I mentioned a study by the Barna Group which indicated that 60% of Christian teens will turn from their faith in early adulthood...

Prayer Letter from ABR Director of Research 6/5/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

It began in Europe. Over the course of the 19th and early 20 centuries, the seeds of doubt in the veracity of Scripture...

Extra-Biblical Evidence for the Conquest 5/30/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

One of the challenges facing those who hold to a historical Conquest as presented in the book of Joshua is that there is alleged to be no other documentation for this event outside the Bible...

David Rohl's Revised Egyptian Chronology: A View From Palestine 5/23/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

David Rohl purports to have produced a better correlation between the findings of archaeology and the Bible by revising Egyptian chronology. Rohl, however, cannot so easily be brushed aside...

Let the Evidence Speak 3/28/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

As one schooled in the scientific method, it disturbs me that, in addition to the say-so of esteemed authority figures, many times opinions are driven by preconceived notions, received knowledge, arguments from silence or majority opinion...

Mesha, King of Moab 9/27/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

2 Kings 3 and the Mesha Inscription, describe the same event, the revolt of Mesha, but from entirely different perspectives. Mesha made his record of the event on a stone slab, or stela, 3 ft high and 2 ft wide. Unfortunately the stone was broken into pieces...

Debunking "The Exodus Decoded" 9/20/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The Exodus Decoded made its US debut August 20 on the History Channel. Produced and narrated by Simcha Jacobovici, the film purportedly provides new evidence to demonstrate the Exodus really happened. Some of Jacobovici’s points are old hat...

The Genesis Philistines 5/31/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The Philistines we encounter in the books of Judges and 1 and 2 Samuel are well known to us. However, skeptics have claimed that references to the Philistines in the book of Genesis are a fictional anachronism. According to the Bible, the Philistines originated in “Caphtor” identified as the island of Crete...

Thoughts on Jebel al-Lawz as the Location of Mount Sinai 5/17/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

We can ascertain the general location of Mt. Sinai from data given in the Bible. The Bible tells us exactly how long it took the Israelites to travel from Mt. Sinai to Kadesh Barnea...

Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Nuzi Tablets 2/27/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Nuzi was a Hurrian administrative center not far from the Hurrian capital at Kirkuk in northern Iraq. The Hurrians are equivalent to the Horites in the Old Testament, also called Hivites and Jebusites. Excavations were carried out at Nuzi by American teams from 1925 to 1933...

Abimelech at Shechem 2/13/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

For some 800 years, from the time of Jacob until the time of Gideon, Shechem was an important highland urban center controlling the area from Megiddo to Jerusalem. It is no surprise, then, that Gideon’s son Abimelech went to the leaders of Shechem to gain support for his failed attempt to become king of the Israelite tribes. Three archaeological discoveries at Shechem relate to the narrative of Judges 9...

Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Mari Archive 2/6/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The ancient city of Mari, located in northern Syria, was a thriving metropolis ca. 2800-1760 BC. From about 2000 BC until its demise in 1760 BC, Mari was the capital of the Amorites...

Ahab the Israelite 1/2/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Ahab, who ruled the northern kingdom for 22 years, ca. 874–853 BC, was perhaps the wickedest king of Israel. The Biblical record is anything but complimentary...

Omri, King of Israel 10/10/2005 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Omri was commander-in-chief of the army of the Northern Kingdom of Israel under Elah, who ruled for two years, 886-885 BC. Zimri, an official in charge of half the chariot force, assassinated Elah in his palace in Tirzah, the capital...

Iraq and the Bible 9/15/2005 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Iraq is called the "Cradle of Civilization," as evidence has been found there for the earliest writing system, urban centers, literature, metallurgy, science, medicine and business, as reflected in the Bible (Gn 2:14; 4:21-22; 10:10-11; 11:1-5). Our modern culture has its roots in ancient Iraq...

Joshua's "Long Day" and Mesopotamian Celestial Omen Texts 8/29/2005 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

A story has been circulating on the Internet that calculations done on NASA computers produced evidence for Joshua's long day. This is not a new story. The account has no basis in fact...

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