Research Articles: Exodus from Egypt

Archaeological and historical articles dealing with the validity of the Exodus narratives of the Old Testament, circa 1550-1400 BC.

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Is It Time to Throw Away Your Bible? The Exodus from Egypt 6/30/2014 - by ABR Staff

For decades, scholars have continually argued that "there is no evidence for the Exodus" in Egypt. Aside from this being an argument from silence, archaeological research in Egypt has revealed numerous evidences consistent with the biblical account from the time of Jacob, Joseph and Moses. Dr. Wood outlines some of the work being done in Egypt and how the skeptical arguments do not hold up to scrutiny.

Where is Mount Sinai in Arabia (Galatians 4:25)? 12/19/2013 - by Gordon Franz MA

Proponents of the "Mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia" thesis continue to appeal to Galatians 4:25 as a supporting argument for their theory. Gordon Franz shows how the first century reader would have understood Paul's geographic reference.

Evidence for the Exodus from Egypt 6/7/2013 - by Doug Petrovich ThM MA

"Evidence for the Exodus from Egypt: The Sudden Abandonment of Biblical Rameses during the Reign of the Exodus Pharaoh"

Was An Archaeological Forgery Mistakenly Portrayed As Authentic? 9/26/2012 - by Gordon Franz MA

During the summer of 2007, Bob Cornuke was a keynote speaker at Promise Keepers events. In one of his presentation he announced the discovery of a stone object that had an inscription that he claimed was translated “Yahweh,” the name of the God of the Israelites.

Book Review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology: Part II 7/12/2012 - by Rodger C. Young MA

Book review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology, by Andrew E. Steinmann. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2011. Hardback, 421 + xxxviii pages. Part II.

Book Review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology: Part I 7/9/2012 - by Rodger C. Young MA

Book review: From Abraham to Paul: A Biblical Chronology, by Andrew E. Steinmann. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2011. Hardback, 421 + xxxviii pages.

Lex Talionis and the Human Fetus 1/10/2012 - by Meredith G Kline PhD

The Winter 2012 issue of Bible and Spade may be the most important issue we have ever produced. It is dedicated to the subject of child sacrifice in the ancient world and Israel, and modern day abortion. This article is being reproduced here in conjunction with the release of this issue. In it, Meredith Kline demonstrates that the law of Moses considered the fetus to be fully human, affording the child legal protection while in the womb. We pray that this issue of Bible and Spade and our online articles will help changes hearts and minds on this critically important subject.

New Evidence Supporting the Early (Biblical) Date of the Exodus and Conquest 11/11/2011 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Evangelical scholars are divided as to when the Exodus-Conquest events took place—some say the 15th century BC, while others hold to the 13th century BC.

An Appraisal of the 2010 Drews and Han Wind Setdown Models of the Exodus 14 Sea Crossing 9/24/2010 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Carl Drews and Weiqing Han of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, conducted 19 computer simulation tests of wind setdown at three suggested locations for the sea crossing described in Exodus 14 (2010). Wind setdown is the drop in water level caused by wind stress acting on the surface of a body of water for an extended period of time. The three test locations for the sea crossing were the north end of the Gulf of Suez, the mouth of a coastal lagoon in the eastern Nile delta at Tell Kedua and the north end of Ballah Lakes in the Isthmus of Suez at Tell Abu Sefeh...

The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts 3/8/2010 - by Charles Aling PhD and Clyde Billington PhD

It is generally accepted that the term Shasu means nomads or Bedouin people, referring primarily to the nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples of Syria-Palestine. There are two significant hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom period texts to an area called “the land of the Shasu of Yahweh.” Except for the Old Testament, these are the oldest references found in any ancient texts to the God Yahweh. The purpose of this paper is to study these two references and assess their possible importance in dating the Exodus account...

Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh 2/4/2010 - by Doug Petrovich ThM MA

The present in-depth work examines the trustworthiness of Biblical history by using the Hebrew exodus from Egypt as a test case. More specifically, an examination of the exodus-pharaoh’s life will reveal whether Biblical history can be harmonized and synchronized with Egyptian history, and whether Biblical chronology is clear and trustworthy when relevant passages are interpreted literally. The need for evaluating the former premise is that many Egyptologists are leading the charge to deny the veracity of the exodus, attempting to persuade Biblical scholars and the Christian populace at large that the exodus never actually occurred...

Recent Research on the Date and Setting of the Exodus 10/19/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Sadly, most contemporary Biblical scholars deny the historicity of God’s miraculous deliverance of Israel from Egypt as documented in the Old Testament (Ex 2–12) and alluded to in the New Testament (Acts 7:36; Rom 9:17)...

"Yahweh Inscription" Discovered at "Mount Sinai"! 10/11/2009 - by Gordon Franz MA

Robert Cornuke, the founder of the BASE Institute claims to have seen, and has photographs of, an ancient stone artifact from Mount Sinai that is inscribed with the name of the LORD, “Yahweh,” on it!

The Bible According to Karnak 8/13/2009 - by Gary Byers MA

The Bible indicates that many important Biblical characters spent time in Egypt: Abraham (Gn 12:10–13:1, Jacob (Gn 46–50), Joseph (Gn 39–50), Moses (Ex 2–12), Joshua, (Nm 14:26–30), Jeremiah (Jer 43:6–8) and even baby Jesus (Mt 2:14–21). Trade routes led from Canaan directly to the Nile delta region, where Goshen was located. Called Lower Egypt because the Nile flows from the mountains in the south (Upper Egypt) to the Mediterranean Sea in the north, this is the part of Egypt where most Biblical characters lived and Biblical events took place...

The Exodus Controversy 8/9/2009 - by Mario Seiglie

It seems that every year, especially around the spring Passover season when Jews and many Christians commemorate Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, newspapers and magazines publish articles questioning the validity of the Biblical account of the Exodus...

The Woman Who Would Be King: National Geographic Review 6/30/2009 - by Col. (Ret.) David G. Hansen PhD

The National Geographic, April, 2009, issue has a report about the Egyptian 18th Dynasty queen, Hatshepsut, by writer Chip Brown. I also wrote an article about Hatshepsut in Bible and Spade, Winter 2003, that was republished in ABR’s electronic newsletter and on their website. In that article I argued Hatshepsut was the “Pharaoh’s daughter” mentioned in the second chapter of Exodus...

Where are the Israelite Burials From the Wilderness Wanderings? 6/18/2009 - by Gordon Franz MA

Some have raised the objection that Mount Sinai could not be in the Sinai Peninsula because millions of Israelites died during the Wilderness Wanderings and no graves of any of these Israelites have been discovered in the Sinai Peninsula from this period. Recently we received such an inquiry...

The Number of Israelites in the Exodus 4/16/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Recently, ABR received the following question about the number of Israelites that left Egypt in the Exodus. Dr. Bryant Wood replies...

The Biblical Date for the Exodus is 1446 BC: A Response to James Hoffmeier 3/30/2009 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The date of the Biblical Exodus-Conquest is clear. 1 Kgs 6:1 and 1 Chr 6:33–37 converge on a date of 1446 BC for the exodus and the Jubilees data and Judges 11:26 independently converge on a date of 1406 BC for the beginning of the conquest. The 1406 BC date is further confirmed by archaeological data from Jericho, Ai (Kh. el-Maqatir) and Hazor...

A Critical Analysis of the Evidence from Ralph Hawkins for a Late-Date Exodus-Conquest 3/16/2009 - by Bryant Wood and Rodger Young

Ralph Hawkins sidesteps the insurmountable problems associated with a late-date exodus-conquest and offers five arguments which he suggests may open up the possibility of a renewed consideration of the Late Date Exodus-Conquest as a viable choice for evangelicals...

Moses and Hatshepsut 2/27/2009 - by Col. (Ret.) David G. Hansen PhD

One of the most interesting questions about Old Testament history concerns the Exodus occurrence and who might have been the Pharaoh. I will use current information about references to “Pharaoh’s daughter” (Ex 2:5, 7, 9, 10; Acts 7:21; Heb 11:24) as a foundation for investigation...

What Do Mt. Horeb, The Mountain of God, Mt. Paran and Mt. Seir Have to Do with Mt. Sinai? 11/17/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The short answer to our title question is that the Mountain of God, Mt. Horeb, Mt. Sinai and Mt. Paran are all names for Mt. Sinai, and Mt. Seir is important for determining the location of Mt. Sinai. The long answer...

Historical Synchronisms and the Date of the Exodus 11/7/2008 - by Charles Aling PhD

For those that hold a high view of Scripture and believe the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt actually happened, there are two major positions today regarding when that event occurred...

New Discoveries at Rameses 10/26/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

In the Spring 2004 issue of Bible and Spade, I reported on the important discovery of a royal precinct at Rameses, the setting of events recorded in the early chapters of Exodus. The article summarizes the results of excavations undertaken from 1993 to 2000. In the present article I would like to bring readers up to date with the results of further work at the site in the fall of 2004 and spring of 2005, based on a preliminary report published by the excavators...

Israel in Egypt 9/24/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

The main route between Canaan and Egypt was along the northern coast of Sinai. A number of Biblical figures no doubt traveled this road. Known to the Egyptians as “the Way of Horus,” and in the Bible as “the road through the Philistine country” (Ex 13:17), it ended in the eastern delta in the Goshen region. This is the part of Egypt where most Biblical characters lived and Biblical events took place...

New Evidence from Egypt on the Location of the Exodus Sea Crossing: Part II 8/23/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

If the Reed Sea can be located somewhere along the marshy lake district of the Isthmus of Suez, which separates the cultivated delta from the barren desert, then the place names in the Exodus account can be centralized to a specific area...

New Evidence from Egypt on the Location of the Exodus Sea Crossing: Part I 8/19/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

It may come as a surprise to many students of the Bible that in the original Hebrew text the body of water the Israelites crossed when leaving Egypt is called yam suph, “Sea of Reeds,” not Red Sea...

Egypt and the Bible 7/26/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

Throughout history, Egyptians lived almost exclusively in the Nile River Valley and its expanded delta. Only ten percent of Egypt’s surface, it has supported 99 percent of the nation’s population from earliest times...

Egyptian Domination of Canaan during Joshua/Judges 7/8/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

ABR is always pleased to help sincere seekers get sound Biblical and archaeological answers to their questions. We hope our readers will clearly see that the Bible is trustworthy...

Is Mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia? 6/10/2008 - by Gordon Franz MA

This article will examine four aspects of the question regarding whether or not Mt. Sinai is located in Saudi Arabia. First, the credibility of the claims will be questioned. Second, the false assumptions by the proponents of Jebel al-Lawz will be disputed. Third, the Biblical evidence will be discussed. Fourth, the archaeological evidence will be examined...

The Lost Ark of the Covenant: Still Lost 5/5/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

The Ark of the Covenant is in the news again. This time it comes from a world-renowned, truly distinguished, widely published scholar who is speaking from his field of expertise. Tudor Parfitt is professor of Jewish Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London...

Ark of the Covenant: Lost or Found? 5/1/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

Long pondered by the community of Biblical scholarship, the rest of the world began considering this question with the release of the hit motion picture “Raiders of the Lost Ark.” Today there are no lack of possibilities...

From the Mailbag 4/20/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

How should Christians react to the "consensus of experts" that there was no Exodus or Conquest as recorded in the Old Testament?

The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory 4/17/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The 13th century exodus-conquest theory was formulated by William F. Albright in the 1930s, based largely on Palestinian archaeological evidence, and promoted by him throughout his career. In spite of the fact that the theory runs counter to Scripture, a number of evangelicals continue to hold to this view...

In Search of Mt. Sinai 4/4/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Surprisingly, the location of Mt. Sinai, one of the most significant places in the Bible, is not known with any degree of certainty. Over the years some two dozen sites have been proposed, none of which meets the Biblical requirements.

The Royal Precinct at Rameses 4/3/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

When Jacob and his family migrated to Egypt, they were settled in “the land of Rameses.” Initially, they were property owners there. Soon, however, the Egyptians subjected the Israelites to bondage, using them as slave laborers to build the city of Rameses...

The Ark of the Covenant: Where has It Been? 4/2/2008 - by Gary Byers MA

Where is the lost Ark of the Covenant? There are numerous theories and, occasionally, even claims. Unfortunately, nothing substantial has ever been produced demonstrating the Ark's present whereabouts...

From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period 4/2/2008 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

Attempts to correlate the findings of archaeology with the biblical record for the period under review have seemingly met with insurmountable ob­stacles. Much of the scholarly community today has despaired of making any valid connections and has dismissed biblical history prior to the king­dom period as nothing more than myth and legend...

Amenhotep II as Pharaoh of the Exodus 2/22/2008 - by William Shea PhD

The Biblical book of Exodus does not name the Pharaoh whom Moses encountered after his return from Sinai. This absence has provided the occasion for considerable controversy and speculation as to just who this Pharaoh was and when he ruled in Egypt.

Did Anthrax Plague the Egyptians? 10/17/2007 - by Brad Sparks

Did anthrax plague the Egyptians at the time of Moses and the Exodus of the Israelites? Many Biblical scholars believe that the Biblical Ten Plagues were an interconnected series of catastrophic natural events that included an attack of anthrax on animals and humans...

Israel's Origins 10/10/2007 - by David Livingston PhD

For some time now many archaeologists, based on certain interpretations of the available evidence, have become convinced that there was no violent military assault on the land by Israel. They believe the entire account is myth...

Mount Sinai is NOT Jebel al-Lawz in Saudi Arabia 10/3/2007 - by Gordon Franz MA

This paper examines three aspects of the identification of Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. First, the paper questions the credibility of the claims. Second, the paper disputes the false assumptions by the proponents of Jebel al-Lawz. Third, the paper examines the archaeological evidence...

David Rohl's Revised Egyptian Chronology: A View From Palestine 5/23/2007 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

David Rohl purports to have produced a better correlation between the findings of archaeology and the Bible by revising Egyptian chronology. Rohl, however, cannot so easily be brushed aside...

Debunking "The Exodus Decoded" 9/20/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

The Exodus Decoded made its US debut August 20 on the History Channel. Produced and narrated by Simcha Jacobovici, the film purportedly provides new evidence to demonstrate the Exodus really happened. Some of Jacobovici’s points are old hat...

Confronting Baal-Zephon: The Spiritual Message of the Meeting of Israel and the Armies of Egypt 7/12/2006 - by Scott Lanser MA

You may ask, "you mean it’s actually important to know where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea?" or "Does it really matter which mountain is Mt. Sinai?"...

The Ark of the Covenant 6/21/2006 - by Leen Ritmeyer PhD

The Ark of the Covenant was undoubtedly the most holy piece of furniture ever made, if it can be referred to as such. It consisted of a rectangular chest made of shittim wood and covered over with gold, and inside it Moses placed the two tablets of the law...

Thoughts on Jebel al-Lawz as the Location of Mount Sinai 5/17/2006 - by Bryant G. Wood PhD

We can ascertain the general location of Mt. Sinai from data given in the Bible. The Bible tells us exactly how long it took the Israelites to travel from Mt. Sinai to Kadesh Barnea...

Rameses: Wrath of God or Man? 5/3/2006 - by Gary Byers MA

The Discovery Channel special Rameses: Wrath of God or Man? suggested the eldest son of Rameses II (the Great) was the firstborn son of the Egyptian Pharaoh killed by the tenth plague...

Great Discoveries in Biblical Archaeology: The Merenptah Stela 3/15/2006 - by Gary Byers MA

The only mention of Israel in Egyptian texts, and the earliest mention of Israel anywhere outside the Bible, is a seven-foot tall granite monument from the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Merenptah...

From What Did Moses Compose Genesis? 12/26/2005 - by David Livingston PhD

Evangelicals agree that Moses wrote Genesis and that the first five Bible books are "The Books of Moses." But, where did Moses get the information for Genesis? He wasn't present for any of the events mentioned in it...

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