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From Ramesses to Shiloh: Archaeological Discoveries Bearing on the Exodus-Judges Period Attempts to correlate the findings of archaeology with the biblical record for the period under review have seemingly met with insurmountable ob­stacles. Much of the scholarly community today has despaired of making any valid connections and has dismissed biblical history prior to the king­dom period as nothing more than myth and legend... Type: Post
Article Categories : Conquest of Canaan, Exodus from Egypt, Judges-United Monarchy
Tags : maqatir, rameses, shiloh, hyksos, pithom, peru-nefer, rowaty, bietak, amenhotep, jericho, kenyon, garstang, ai, beitin, bethel, amarna, hazor, apiru, eglon, merneptah, dan, abimelech, muskhuta
The Duration of the Israelite Sojourn In Egypt There has been a division among scholars as to whether the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt was 215 (or 210) years long, or 430 years long. Although, along with Genesis 15:13-21, Exodus 12:40 is our primary source, evidences other than the variants of the ancient translations of the Scriptures are needed in order to reach a decision with respect to whether the long chronology or the short one for the Israelite sojourn in Egypt is to be preferred. Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : Sojourn, Exodus, Joseph, Rameses, Hyksos, Tel el daba, Perunefer
Joseph in Egypt: Part I No portion of the Old Testament has a richer Egyptian coloring than the story of Joseph. Egyptian names, titles, places, and customs all appear in Genesis 37–50. In the last one hundred years or so, historical and archaeological research has made the study of the Egyptian elements in the Joseph story more fruitful than ever before... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : joseph, genesis, hyksos, semites in egypt, sesostris, middle kingdom, rameses
Israel in Egypt The main route between Canaan and Egypt was along the northern coast of Sinai. A number of Biblical figures no doubt traveled this road. Known to the Egyptians as “the Way of Horus,” and in the Bible as “the road through the Philistine country” (Ex 13:17), it ended in the eastern delta in the Goshen region. This is the part of Egypt where most Biblical characters lived and Biblical events took place... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era, Exodus from Egypt
Tags : egypt, exodus, rameses, hyksos
Debunking "The Exodus Decoded" The Exodus Decoded made its US debut August 20 on the History Channel. Produced and narrated by Simcha Jacobovici, the film purportedly provides new evidence to demonstrate the Exodus really happened. Some of Jacobovici’s points are old hat... Type: Post
Article Categories : Contemporary Issues, Exodus from Egypt
Tags : exodus, simcha jacobovici, yam suph, sinai
The Royal Precinct at Rameses When Jacob and his family migrated to Egypt, they were settled in “the land of Rameses.” Initially, they were property owners there. Soon, however, the Egyptians subjected the Israelites to bondage, using them as slave laborers to build the city of Rameses... Type: Post
Article Categories : Exodus from Egypt
Tags : rameses, el daba, rowaty, peru-nefer, hyksos, bietak, amenhotep
Did the Israelites Conquer Jericho? A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence The story of the Israelite conquest of Jericho (Joshua 2-6) is one of the best known and best loved in the entire Bible. The vivid description of faith and victory has been a source of inspiration for countless generations of Bible readers. But did it really happen as the Bible describes it? Type: Post
Article Categories : Conquest of Canaan
Tags : kenyon, garstang, city iv, conquest, jericho, late bronze, joshua
Amenhotep II and the Historicity of the Exodus Pharaoh The present in-depth work examines the trustworthiness of Biblical history by using the Hebrew exodus from Egypt as a test case. More specifically, an examination of the exodus-pharaoh’s life will reveal whether Biblical history can be harmonized and synchronized with Egyptian history, and whether Biblical chronology is clear and trustworthy when relevant passages are interpreted literally. The need for evaluating the former premise is that many Egyptologists are leading the charge to deny the veracity of the exodus, attempting to persuade Biblical scholars and the Christian populace at large that the exodus never actually occurred... Type: Post
Article Categories : Exodus from Egypt
Tags : amenhotep, exodus, hatshepsut, moses, thutmosis, rameses, 1 kings 6, plagues, amarna, memphis stela, karnak stela, apiru, hazor
Joseph in Egypt: Part VI We do not know how many years Joseph served as Egypt’s Vizier (Prime Minister). It is very interesting that he evidently held two key titles, Vizier and Chief Steward of the King. This is relatively unusual in Egyptian history... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : joseph, genesis, hyksos, mummies, semites in egypt, vizier, rameses
Joseph in Egypt: Part IV In Genesis 41, Joseph meets the king of Egypt. As we saw in our last article, he had been prepared for this encounter by being cleaned up and shaved, in true Egyptian fashion. He was now ready to meet the most powerful and important man on earth... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : joseph, genesis, beni hasan, semites in egypt, cupbearer, baker, hyksos
The Rise and Fall of the 13th Century Exodus-Conquest Theory The 13th century exodus-conquest theory was formulated by William F. Albright in the 1930s, based largely on Palestinian archaeological evidence, and promoted by him throughout his career. In spite of the fact that the theory runs counter to Scripture, a number of evangelicals continue to hold to this view... Type: Post
Article Categories : Conquest of Canaan, Exodus from Egypt
Tags : Exodus, beitin, et-tell, kitchen, yam suph, red sea, apiru, rameses, bietek, jericho, ai, maqatir, hazor, amarna, merneptah
The Joseph Narrative (Genesis 37, 39–50) Egyptian pharaohs brought many captives from Canaan into Egypt, to be employed in state and temple servitude, some passing into private hands as slaves; Canaanite merchants also visited Egypt... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : joseph, genesis, beni hasan, semites in egypt, potiphera, zaphenath
The Bible According to Karnak The Bible indicates that many important Biblical characters spent time in Egypt: Abraham (Gn 12:10–13:1, Jacob (Gn 46–50), Joseph (Gn 39–50), Moses (Ex 2–12), Joshua, (Nm 14:26–30), Jeremiah (Jer 43:6–8) and even baby Jesus (Mt 2:14–21). Trade routes led from Canaan directly to the Nile delta region, where Goshen was located. Called Lower Egypt because the Nile flows from the mountains in the south (Upper Egypt) to the Mediterranean Sea in the north, this is the part of Egypt where most Biblical characters lived and Biblical events took place... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era, Exodus from Egypt
Tags : egypt, karnak, joseph, hatshepsut, luxor, valley of the kings, thutmosis
New Discoveries at Rameses In the Spring 2004 issue of Bible and Spade, I reported on the important discovery of a royal precinct at Rameses, the setting of events recorded in the early chapters of Exodus. The article summarizes the results of excavations undertaken from 1993 to 2000. In the present article I would like to bring readers up to date with the results of further work at the site in the fall of 2004 and spring of 2005, based on a preliminary report published by the excavators... Type: Post
Article Categories : Exodus from Egypt
Tags : egypt, exodus, rameses
Joseph in Egypt: Part III As all who are familiar with the Biblical account will remember, Joseph, while still in the household of Potiphar, was falsely accused of adultery with the wife of his master and thrown into prison. The normal punishment for adultery in ancient Egypt was death; the fact that Joseph did not suffer execution is interesting and perhaps indicates that Potiphar doubted the veracity of his wife, who had made the accusation. In any case, Joseph spent time in an Egyptian prison... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : joseph, genesis, hyksos, semites in egypt, sesostris, middle kingdom, rameses
The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts It is generally accepted that the term Shasu means nomads or Bedouin people, referring primarily to the nomadic or semi-nomadic peoples of Syria-Palestine. There are two significant hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom period texts to an area called “the land of the Shasu of Yahweh.” Except for the Old Testament, these are the oldest references found in any ancient texts to the God Yahweh. The purpose of this paper is to study these two references and assess their possible importance in dating the Exodus account... Type: Post
Article Categories : Exodus from Egypt
Tags : yahweh, shasu, apiru, rameses, medinet habu, moabite stone, tel el daba, hyksos, exodus, succoth
The Discovery of the Sin Cities of Sodom and Gomorrah When the archaeological, geographical and epigraphic evidence is reviewed in detail, it is clear that the infamous cities of Sodom and Gomorrah have now been found. What is more, this evidence demonstrates that the Bible provides an accurate eyewitness account of events that occurred southeast of the Dead Sea over 4,000 years ago... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : sodom, gomorrah, bab ed dhra, numiera, safi, khanazir, cities of the plain, zoar, lots cave, madaba map, genesis 14, ebla, genesis 19
Dating Jericho's Destruction: Bienkowski is Wrong on All Counts In 1990, Dr. Bryant Wood published his well known article in Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) on the destruction of Jericho and its correlation with the Biblical account. In the Sep./Oct. 1990 issue of BAR, Piotr Bienkowski wrote an article disputing Dr. Wood's conclusions. The following article engages with Bienkowski's criticisms, providing the reader with an in-depth analysis of some of the work done at Jericho, and demonstrating Dr. Wood's expertise and thorough familiarity with the evidence. This article provides some additional data not published in Dr. Wood's first BAR article, thus adding to the mountain of evidence demonstrating that Jericho was destroyed around 1400 B.C., the same time the Bible records that the events of Joshua 3-6 took place. Type: Post
Article Categories : Conquest of Canaan
Tags : Jericho, Joshua, Bienkowski, Garstang, Kenyon, Conquest
The Exodus Controversy It seems that every year, especially around the spring Passover season when Jews and many Christians commemorate Israel’s deliverance from Egypt, newspapers and magazines publish articles questioning the validity of the Biblical account of the Exodus... Type: Post
Article Categories : General Apologetics, Exodus from Egypt
Tags : Exodus, Minimalism, Maximalism, Absence of Evidence, Arguments from Silence
The Beni Hasan Asiatics and the Biblical Patriarchs The modern village of Beni Hasan is one hundred sixty miles south of Cairo (and just north of Amarna on the map). Named after the local Bedouin tribe living for centuries, it sits adjacent to the ruins of Monet-Khufu, ancient capital of the sixteenth (Antelope) nome in Middle Egypt. Little of the city is left, except the rock-cut tombs in the cliffs high above the Nile’s eastern shore. Here Egyptologists found a now-famous tomb painting which offers important insights into the world of the Biblical Patriarchs... Type: Post
Article Categories : Patriarchal Era
Tags : beni hasan, asiaitics, patriarchs, khnumhotep, semites in egypt
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