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Archaeologists diving off the Egyptian coast near Wadi el-Jarf have discovered the world's oldest known harbor, dating back 4600 years. Papyri discovered near the site identify it as the harbor built by King Cheops (known also as Khufu), to import materials to build the Great Pyramid of Giza. A 200-meter-long, L-shaped pier built of limestone blocks was discovered underwater, which would have served as a breakwater to protect the boats anchored in the harbor. Divers also found 22 limestone anchors in situ where the ships would have been moored. Next to the harbor, archaeologists unearthed the remains of two large stone structures, possibly used for administrative purposes. Between these structures, close to 100 stone anchors were found, some of which had ropes attached to them. Many of these had inscriptions that named the boat they belonged to. The discoveries at the Wadi el-Jarf harbor are testament to the sophisticated level of organization and administration the Egyptians had developed at that time. 

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